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The Eastern Indian tribes formed two main groups, speaking different languages: the lroquoian and the Algonkian.

When the white men came into contact with the western Indians early in the eighteenth century, they found them grouped into four great language divisions

A deadfall for trapping foxes, wolves, etc.,. Montagnais hunting moose in Winter, Shooting the wild turkey

Using fish as fertilizer, breaking ground and sowing corn, women gathering corn

Camass flowers, collecting maple sap, Saskatoon berries, digging camass roots

Wild rice was an important cereal food among the Indians of the Great Lakes region.

Cartier thus describes Hochelaga:

"The village is circular and is completely enclosed by a wooden palisade in three tiers like a pyramid. The top one is built crosswise, the middle one perpendicular...

The beaming tool was so named because the skin to be dressed was laid over a smooth log or beam from which the bark had been stripped.

The clothing of the Indians varied according to the nature of the country which they inhabited. In addition to the skins of fur-bearing animals, which they used as robes, they also fashioned garments fitted to the body.

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